Such budgets are not necessarily a 50—50 male-female split, but accurately reflect the needs of each sex such as increased allocation for women's reproductive health. A sex-responsive budget may also work to address issues of unpaid care work and caring labor gaps. Current research which uses sex-aggregated statistics may underplay or minimize the quantitative presentation of issues such as maternal mortality, violence against women, and girls' school attendance.
Though the representation has become a much larger picture, it is important to notice the inclination of political activity emphasizing women over the years in different countries. Researching politics on a global scale does not just reinvent ideas of politics, especially towards women, but brings about numerous concepts. Sheri Kunovich and Pamela Paxton research method, for example, took a different path by studying "cross-national" implications to politics, taking numerous countries into consideration.
This approach helps identify research beforehand that could be helpful in figuring out commodities within countries and bringing about those important factors when considering the overall representation of women. These kinds of studies help establish that generalizing countries together is far too limiting to the overall case that we see across countries and that we can take the information we gain from these studies that look at countries separately and pose new theories as to why countries have the concepts they do; this helps open new reasons and thus confirms that studies need to be performed over a much larger group of factors.
A study in the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy found that for German local elections "female council candidates advance more from their initial list rank when the mayor is female. This effect spreads to neighboring municipalities and leads to a rising share of female council members.
Women's informal collectives are crucial to improving the standard of living for women worldwide. Collectives can address such issues as nutrition, education, shelter, food distribution, and generally improved standard of living. Though women's movements have a very successful outcome with the emphasis on gaining equality towards women, other movements are taking different approaches to the issue. Women in certain countries, instead of approaching the demands as representation of women as "a particular interest group", have approached the issue on the basis of the " universality of sex differences and the relation to the nation".
In their article, they explain that a democratic country is more likely to listen to " autonomous organizing" within the government. Women's movements would benefit from this the most or has had great influence and impact because of democracy , though it can become a very complex system. At this level, traditional leaders also have a vested interest that generally opposes women's interests". Amanda Gouws says that "The instability of democratic or nominally democratic regimes makes women's political gains very vulnerable because these gains can be easily rolled back when regimes change.
The failure to make the private sphere part of political contestation diminishes the power of formal democratic rights and limits solutions to gender inequality". In Azerbaijan , placing women in government has progressed better than in other Islamic countries.
Universal suffrage was introduced in Azerbaijan in by the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic , thus making Azerbaijan the first Muslim-majority countries and Turk-majority countries ever to enfranchise women. As of , there were 21 women in the seat parliament. The percentage of female members of parliament increased from 11 to 17 percent between and Traditional social norms and lagging economic development in the country's rural regions continued to restrict the role of women in the economy, and there were reports that women had difficulty exercising their legal rights due to gender discrimination.
Women constituted 4 of the 16 members of the Central Election Commission and chaired of 3 of the district election commissions. Some famous female managers in historical Azerbaijan territories mentioned below:.
Women in government - Wikipedia
A Brazilian gender quota was extended first to city councilor positions in , then extended to candidates of all political legislative positions by Though the percentage of national legislature seats occupied by women dropped in the initial years following the passage of the quota law, the percentage has since risen from 6. However, Brazil has struggled with the quota law in several respects:.
China's stipulation for gender equality in the political sphere started on as early as recorded in its Constitution, in which the PRC government stated that men and women enjoy equal rights in the aspects of political, economic, cultural, social and family dimensions, especially highlighting legitimate voting right and the right to be elected. However, regardless of the proper representation of women's political eligibility across multiple government declarations, the political system in China remains overwhelmingly male-dominated which in turns drives the low engagement rate of women delegates.
Despite the new 13th NPC lineup with a composition of women out of 2, representatives, which amounts to In addition, the recent reappointment of Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, has sparked controversy on the unbroken record of no-women Politburo Standing Committee and absence of female top leaders in any legislature in China's political history, apart from the exceptions of Vice Premier, Liu Yandong and Vice Foreign Minister, Fu Ying.
The public has been compelled to draw parallel with Hong Kong and Taiwan where female presidents — Carrie Lam and Tsai Ing-wen — took office in and respectively. The male-heavy politics amidst the favorable women's right protection in China can be examined from the following underlying causes:.
While the implied prerequisite of national appointment is years of experience serving at middle-to-top management, women in the PRC government often struggle to obtain promotion to high-ranked positions, such as party secretary or principal governor. Women are, at the same time, missing the opportunities to keep a foothold in strategic national affairs, including but not limited to economic development, military planning and diplomatic involvement.
Women commonly maintain highest authority as Head in women-related bodies, administering concerns on women's unfair treatments and suggesting for children's health development. Consequently, with the lack of exposure to the exemplary official posts and the exclusive offering of key national assignments for men, women's upward mobility is aggravated, resulting in the substantially dwindling likelihood of taking residence in key leading positions. In China, there is an apparent discrepancy in the mandatory retirement age between men and women, in which men are entitled to enjoy 10 more years of work.
This policy was established on the ground that women are primary and central support for domestic subjects and their early retirement at the age of 50—55 would be beneficial to their overall family functioning. In addition, the average age of Chinese chief in Central Committee is While in foreign countries, women's socio-economic status is uplifted and gender division of labor is largely wiped out by feminist movements to open up the availability and variety of work for women, the conservative and politically-sensitive Chinese government's censorship on feminism within the country has spread fear among feminism advocates.
An illustrative case of which is the backlash of 'Feminist Five' in China. The activists suffered from interrogation, detention and month-long imprisonment due to the distribution of stickers on Beijing subways for drawing the wider community's awareness to sexual harassment against women. Feminist movements are yet to achieve their goals.
Unlike other countries' quota laws, which affect party structure or electoral candidate lists, the Finnish law addresses indirectly elected bodies nominated by official authorities —the law does not address popularly elected bodies. The Finnish law heavily emphasizes local municipal boards and other subnational institutions.
The quota law also affected gender segregation in local governance: In , the boards were balanced horizontally. However, areas not subject to quota laws continue to be imbalanced.
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The gender quotas implemented across parties in Germany in the s serve as a natural experiment for the effect of sub-national party political gender quotas on women participation. Davidson-Schmich notes, "the German case provides the variance needed to explain the successful or failed implementation of these political party quotas". Germany is rated highly in its gender gap, but is an example of a developed country with a low percentage of female leadership in politics. Davidson-Schmich's study shows that there are many factors that influence how effective a political quota for women will be.
Because Germany's quotas cover culturally diverse areas, Davidson-Schmich was able to see which cities best responded to the increase in women running for office. In her bivariate study, the quota was more successful when the city had a PR electoral system, when more women held inner-party and local political offices, and when there were more women in state-level executive offices.
The quota was less successful in rural areas, areas with a large number of Catholic voters, electoral systems with a preferential system, in extremely competitive party systems, and with greater rates of legislative turnover. In her multivariate study of these regions, however, Davidson-Schmich narrowed these factors down even further to the most significant variables of: Catholicism and agricultural economics Davidson-Schmich, , p. This is very intriguing, and as she explains, "the success of voluntary gender quotas in the German states hinged not on the political structure of these Lander, but rather the willingness of within the system to act on the opportunities inherent in these structures" Davidson-Schmich, , p.
Social factors and inherent gender discrimination are more important in the success of a female political quota than the structure of the quota itself. In an effort to increase women's participation in politics in India, a constitutional amendment mandated that a randomly selected third of leadership positions at every level of local government be reserved for women. Due to the randomized selection of cities who must enforce the reservation for women each election year, some cities have implemented the quota multiple times, once or never.
This addresses the political discrimination of women at various levels: In Mumbai, it was found that the probability of a women winning office conditional on the constituency being reserved for women in the previous election is approximately five times the probability of a women winning office if the constituency had not been reserved for women". Given the opportunity to get a party ticket, create a platform and obtain the experience to run for a political position, women are much more likely to be able to overcome these hurdles in the future, even without the quota system in place.
Research in West Bengal and Rajasthan has indicated that reservation affected policy choices in ways that seem to better reflect women's preferences. However, while reservation did not make male villagers more sympathetic to the idea of female leaders, it caused them to recognize that women could lead. Moreover, the reservation policy significantly improved women's prospects in elections open to both sexes, but only after two rounds of reservation within the same village. Japan ranks in the world for the number of women in national parliamentary worldwide as of March , which is lower than that of in which Japan ranked at The first female cabinet member, Masa Nakayama , was appointed as the Minister of Health and Welfare in Japan in That system was not conducive to women's advancement in public office because it promoted contestation between competing parties and rival candidates within the same party, [ citation needed ] but overall, the new electoral system was introduced to reduce the excessive role of money and corruption in elections, which ultimately helped women who were running for public office.
Because gaining support from these groups is usually based on personal connections, women's historically disadvantaged position in networking circles hurts their ability to run for public office. Out of seats, are contested in single seat constituencies. The other members are elected through allocations to an electoral list submitted by each party.
Candidates who lack a strong support system are listed on a party's proportional representation section. In the election, only two of eight female Liberal Democratic Party members were elected from a single-seat district, which indicates that few female candidates have enough political support to win a single-seat election.
Lebanese women are considered to have more rights and freedom compared to other women in the Gulf and Middle East. Lebanese women enjoy almost equal civil rights as men. However, due to the large number of officially recognized religions in Lebanon, Lebanese family matters are governed by at least 15 personal statute codes. Lebanese women have legal protection that varies depending on their religion. Local and regional NGOs have helped to increase awareness of violence against women in Lebanon.
In , the Dutch government achieved their goal for women in top jobs within the government. In business, the number of women in top jobs is behind in the political sector. In , the listed companies inserted a 'one in three' rule, which meant that of every three top jobs, one must be exerted by a woman.
Not long after, it turned out companies did not put much effort in to achieving this goal, as in practice even less than one in every ten top jobs was occupied by women. The goal for women in top jobs was postponed to Meanwhile women's quota received a fair share of criticism. It has been argued that women should be employed based on their own qualities, not because of their gender. No political gender quotas exist in Romania, however the Equality Act of provides that public authorities and institutions, political parties, employers' organizations and trade unions must provide an equitable and balanced representation of men and women at all decisional levels.
Since the election of , Rwanda is the first country to have a majority of women in legislature. Two pieces of legislature enabled and supported women into leadership positions: Of the 24 women who gained seats directly after the quota implementation in , many joined political parties and chose to run again. Though it took almost 10 years, after implementing the gender quotas, Rwanda reached levels of female representation which are amongst the highest in the world.
It is argued that the increase of female leadership in Rwanda also led to an increase in gender equality. World Focus writes, "Rwandan voters have elected women in numbers well beyond the mandates dictated by the post-genocide constitution. While some researchers see reform, others see dominant party tactics. Hassim writes, "It could be argued that in both countries [Uganda and Rwanda] women's representation provided a kind of alibi for the progressive, 'democratic' nature of new governments that at their core nevertheless remained authoritarian, and increasingly so".
In , she became the longest-reigning female head of state in world history. In , she became the longest currently serving head of state male or female. In the United States no political gender quotas exist, mandatory or voluntary. The proportion of women in leadership roles in the Senate, House of Representatives, and Presidential positions reflect this. Although the proportion has grown since the first female elected into the Senate,  the current position of women representation in the U. In the elections of , the greatest number of female incumbents ever were up for re-election in the Senate.
Ten female Democrats, six of them incumbents, were nominated, with one Republican nominated for Senate ran for office. The United States is one of the shrinking number of industrialized democracies to not have yet had a woman as its leader. Even Pakistan and Turkey, countries often viewed as particularly male-dominated have had female prime ministers. Therefore, the United States, a country which promotes the rights of women and girls around the world, is conspicuous for having only male presidents. In popular media in the United States, female politicians see some focus on their appearance; more so than their male counterparts.
A feminist journal by Carlin and Winfrey focuses on the portrayal of female politicians in the media. According to the journal, the way media perceives women and men is very distinct in the language they chose to use.
Women in politics
The language chosen to talk or describe other people can either hurt or help them in a political campaign. As a result of women being talked about in sexist terms in can greatly affect her reputation and credibility. Animal terms focus on the appearance and sexuality of young women foxy , and as women grow older, or are seen as too aggressive, they may be called barracuda, old bat, shrew, or cow. This is due to innate purpose of the media to appeal to demands of their audiences for sales — in this case the popular female focus on fashion that dominates the media.
Studies done on women candidates have shown that women receive more attention in the media for factors such as appearance, clothes, size, and emotional state  ". In , campaigns for both Sarah Palin and Hillary Clinton were taken in great interest by fashion articles read mostly by women. The journal claims that Clinton was perceived as masculine and Palin was seen as feminine. They took Palin as a joke and various individuals began to state that this was a political campaign and not another beauty pageant.
On the other hand Clinton was perceived as a "nut cracker" and "where boners go to die". Clinton's physical appearance and her choice of clothing, pantsuits over skirts and dresses, were the source of considerable ridicule. Due to the smaller proportion of women who pursue political careers, there is greater pressure on female politicians to succeed.
The importance of criticisms about "cankles" and the like on public popularity in a presidential election is disputed. Many think these criticisms are neglegible, but Carlin and Winfrey believe this criticisms have a large effect. This analysis done on both Senator Clinton's and Governor Palin's campaign concluded that media coverage had a vast responsibility on how both women were viewed due to their gender stereotypes and language used to "influence the public",  though others argue that the style of media coverage is entirely the result of existing demand by the audience.
In Rachel Silbermann conducted a study that time spent traveling to and from work is particularly burdensome for those who spend time caring for children, and as women do a majority of the child care and housework, commuting is particularly burdensome to them. Silbermann also found that female students weigh proximity to home twice as heavily as male students do in a hypothetical decision of whether to run for higher office.
She suggests that to achieve equal representation of women in government men and women will need to share household responsibilities more equally. A study found no evidence that the low share of women in the U. House of Representative was due to gender discrimination by voters. A study in the American Political Science Review did not find evidence that American voters were outright hostile to women in politics or that they held double standards.
The study did however find that American voters preferred candidates who were married and had children. Since the burdens of child-rearing disproportionately fall on women in households, the bias in favor of married candidates with children may explain women's underrepresentation in politics. Women in government have historically been fewer in numbers in Western societies compared to men. Some women, however, have served as heads of state and government. Some of the most prominent female leaders of world powers in recent decades were listed by name then position:.
The following women leaders are currently in office as either the head of their nation's government or the head of state:. Women holding prominent cabinet posts have grown in numbers worldwide during the 20th and 21st centuries, and in recent years have increasingly held the top profile portfolios for their governments in non-traditional areas for women in government, such as national security and defense, finance or revenue, and foreign relations. The following women have held posts in recent years as ministers of foreign relations or the equivalent for their respective national governments:.
The following women have held posts in recent years as ministers of defense, national security or an equivalent for their respective national governments:. For their part, men are seen as having a relative advantage in being willing to take risks and negotiating profitable deals. Among the traits Americans see as most essential to being a good business leader — creating a safe and respectful workplace and being honest and ethical — higher shares point to women as having the upper hand rather than men.
Still, many say there is no difference between men and women in both cases. Women are more likely than men to say female leaders outperform men on several leadership dimensions. When it comes to business, there are wide gender gaps on two items that relate directly to workplace culture.
Women in government
Women are significantly more likely than men to say that female business leaders are better than their male counterparts at creating a safe and respectful workplace and providing mentorship to young employees. Still, many in the public associate some industries more with one gender than the other. And among those who do see a difference between men and women in these areas, opinions are fairly evenly divided. There are two exceptions, however. Closer to half see these traits as helpful to women who are trying to get to the top.
Six-in-ten adults say this helps women get ahead in politics, and an even higher share say it helps women succeed in business. Fewer say being attractive is helpful to men. Showing emotions is seen, on balance, as being more harmful than helpful to both men and women. Still, more say this hurts female leaders than male leaders. The patterns are similar for business leaders. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.
It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Publications Topics Interactives Datasets Experts. For more details, see the Methodology section of the report. The data on women leaders.
Table of Contents Overview 1. Views on the state of gender and leadership and obstacles for women 2. Views on leadership traits and competencies and how they intersect with gender Acknowledgments Methodology.
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Time yearly quarterly monthly latest data available. Definition of Women in politics The women in politics indicator includes data on: Last published in Publication. Citation Please cite this indicator as follows: OECD , Women in politics indicator. Related publications Closing the Gender Gap Publication Atlas of Gender and Development Publication